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作者: Matthew J. Hickman>
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摘要: Abstract(#br)The Seattle Police Department (SPD) recently enhanced their response to individuals in behavioral crisis through a pilot Crisis Response Team (CRT) consisting of dedicated Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) officers (OFC) paired with a Mental Health Professional (MHP). This study presents results of an incident-based descriptive evaluation of the SPD's CRT pilot program, implemented from 2010 to 2012. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the value-added by the MHP in cases inv关键词: Crisis intervention; Law enforcement; Behavioral crisis; Mentally ill; Evaluation; Seattle Police Department
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Matthew J. Hickman; Alex R. Piquero; Zachary A. Powell; Jack Greene;
摘要: Purpose(#br) – Klockars et al. use scenario methodology to measure perceived seriousness, level of discipline warranted, and willingness to report fellow officers engaged in various negative behaviors. These data are used to characterize the occupational culture of integrity in a given agency, relative to other agencies. What remains unclear is whether these agency-level findings mask important meso- and micro-level variation in the data (i.e. at the precinct/district and officer levels) that ma关键词: Police;Police culture
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摘要: Purpose(#br) – Relying on a moral development theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the perceived seriousness of a particular behavior is a reflection of one’s broader attitudes toward ethical behaviors. Attitudes toward ethical behavior should provide both an elaborated explanation for the relationship between the perceived seriousness of a behavior and the likelihood of reporting a fellow officer for that behavior, as well as an alternative approach to the measureme关键词: Community-oriented policing;Integrity
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Matthew J. Hickman; Loren T. Atherley; Patrick G. Lowery; Geoffrey P. Alpert;
Police QuarterlyVolume 18, Issue 4, 2015, PP 368-396
摘要: The force factor method has garnered much attention and application in police use-of-force research, but the reliability of the method has yet to be intensively studied. Using official reports from the Seattle Police Department during a two-and-a-quarter-year period ( n = 1,240), officer–suspect interactions were coded from the content of report narratives. Static force factors compared the maximum force applied by the officer with the maximum level of suspect resistance. Dynamic force factors w关键词: police use of force; force factor; reliability
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摘要: Decertification is the process by which a state authority determines that an individual should not be allowed to continue exercising the duties and privileges of a law enforcement officer. This is a potentially powerful mechanism for ensuring integrity in law enforcement, yet little is known about the nature and scope of decertification actions. This article presents the findings of a national study of decertification practices among the states. Over 1,350 officers were decertified during 2011 (关键词: decertification; police behavior; police integrity; police legitimacy; accountability
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Joseph L. Peterson;Matthew J. Hickman;Kevin J. Strom;Donald J. Johnson;
Journal of Forensic SciencesVolume 58, Issue 5, 2013, PP 1403-1404
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Matthew J. Hickman; Jennifer Fricas; Kevin J. Strom; Mark W. Pope;
Police QuarterlyVolume 14, Issue 3, 2011, PP 227-250
摘要: Research on police stress has developed out of several theoretical frameworks, but the knowledge base is limited by a common reliance on self-report stress measures. This article describes an innovative approach to studying police stress that attempts to overcome some of these limitations by using direct, real-time, and spatially anchored measurement of an officer’s stress response (via heart rate) during shift work. A pilot study was conducted using a single officer to determine whether this me关键词: police stress; heart rate; measurement; mapping
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Research Article
Kevin J. Strom; Matthew J. Hickman; Hope M. Smiley Mcdonald; Jeri D. Ropero-Miller; Peter M. Stout;
摘要: Abstract(#br)The crime laboratory has not typically been thought of as a decision stage within the criminal justice process. However, increasing reliance on forensic evidence has led to necessary discretion about what types of cases to accept, what evidence to analyze, and how to prioritize workload. This article reports the results of semi-structured interviews conducted with state and local police agencies, prosecutors, and crime laboratory personnel in ten U.S. jurisdictions. The focus is on 关键词: Forensic labs; process improvement; research; evidence; drugs
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摘要: The present study applies small world network analysis to 727 articles from Criminology, Justice Quarterly , and the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency to assess scholarship collaboration trends within criminology and criminal justice (CCJ). Findings indicate that CCJ scholars tend to collaborate (versus sole author) on a great number of peer‐reviewed efforts, with several scholars collaborating with well over 10, and as many as 40, unique (non‐redundant) co‐authors. Consistent with th
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摘要: Benford's law suggests that the distribution of leading (leftmost) digits in data of an anomalous nature (i.e., without relationship) will conform to a formula of logarithmic intervals known as the Benford distribution. Forensic auditors have successfully used digital analysis vis-à-vis the Benford distribution to detect financial fraud, while government investigators have used a corollary of the distribution (focused on trailing digits) to detect scientific fraud in medical research. This study
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Research Article
Kevin J. Strom; Matthew J. Hickman;
Criminology & Public PolicyVolume 9, Issue 2, 2010, PP 381-404
摘要: Research Summary(#br)This study investigated forensic evidence processing in a nationally representative sample of state and local law‐enforcement agencies (n = 3,153). For a 5‐year period, agencies reported that 14% of all unsolved homicides (an estimated 3,975 cases) and 18% of all unsolved rapes (an estimated 27,595 cases) contained forensic evidence that had not been submitted to a forensic crime laboratory for analysis. Approximately 40% of these unanalyzed homicide and rape cases were repo关键词: forensic science; evidence; backlog; law enforcement
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摘要: Minority representation among police personnel, relative to the communities they serve, has long been advanced as an explanatory factor for the prevalence of negative police—public interactions as well as police agency responsiveness to public concerns, particularly with regard to the use of force. But minority representation has rarely been studied empirically and on a large scale. The present study examined minority representation and additional organizational, administrative, and environmenta关键词: minority representation; police; complaints; use of force
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MATTHEW J. HICKMAN; ALEX R. PIQUERO; JOEL H. GARNER;
Criminology & Public PolicyVolume 7, Issue 4, 2008, PP 563-604
摘要: Research Summary(#br)Despite frequent calls for national data on police use of force, the literature is dominated by unrepresentative samples from a small number of primarily urban jurisdictions, inconsistent definitions of force, and differing universes for the computation of rates. Among 36 publications that report on the amount of nonlethal force used by the police, rates vary from 0.1% to 31.8%. To improve our ability to estimate the amount of nonlethal force in the United States, we employ 关键词: police; nonlethal force; measurement; national estimates
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摘要: This research note explores the use of self-report surveys in police samples to study citizen complaints. Officer self-reported citizen complaints are compared with official departmental complaints data among a sample of 440 officers in a large municipal police department. Findings reflect moderate correspondence between self-reported and official data for ever having been the subject of a complaint (data correspond for 77% of respondents; phi = .54). Validity appears stronger for dichotomous me关键词: self-reports; citizen complaints; police behavior
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Research Article
Brian A. Lawton; Alex R. Piquero; Matthew J. Hickman; Jack R. Greene;
Justice Research and PolicyVolume 3, Issue 2, 2001, PP 95-108
摘要: Police departments across the country have turned to geographic information systems (GIS) to identify crime patterns within their jurisdictions, design responses, and evaluate their performance. In addition, many agencies have adopted a geography-based, COMPSTAT-like process to hold police managers accountable for activity within their commands. However, a purely external and descriptive focus fails to take full advantage of all that a true GIS has to offer. This is particularly true when trying
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Matthew J. Hickman; Brian A. Lawton; Alex R. Piquero; Jack R. Greene;
Justice Research and PolicyVolume 3, Issue 1, 2001, PP 97-113
摘要: This article examines racial parity in the formal disciplinary system of the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD). Data drawn from a random sample of 499 Philadelphia police officers are linked to official data drawn from the PPD disciplinary database. Results suggest that about one third of the sample was charged with a disciplinary offense. When we examined the extent to which race influenced the various stages of the disciplinary process (charge, hearing, guilty), we failed to uncover a signi
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摘要: The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle advanced a general theory of deviance that may help to fill this gap. The central premise of Tittle’s control balance theory is that the amount of control to which one is subject relative to the amount of control one can exercise (the control ratio) affects both the probability of deviance as well as the specific form of devian关键词: Police; Behavioural sciences; Control; Role conflict; USA
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摘要: The relationship between officer involvement in community policing and job satisfaction is poorly understood and in need of greater empirical articulation. Using data collected as part of a federally funded community policing program in Philadelphia, this article analyzes the relationships between assignment to a traditional or community policing role, officer perceptions of impact, and three dimensions of job satisfaction. Structural equation modeling is used to explore the causal relationships
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摘要: Police supervisor decision making with regard to disciplinary action has received scant empirical study in general, and has yet to be examined across gender. In this paper, we use official departmental disciplinary data from the Philadelphia Police Department for the period 1991-1998 to study the extent to which gender parity exists in the formal disciplinary system. Three questions are investigated: (1) Is there an observable gender disproportionality in the police discipline punishment rates? 关键词: Police; Discipline; Sex discrimination
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摘要: Recent policing literature suggests that community policing and problem solving will generate additional ethical dilemmas at the officer and organizational levels. As a result, several scholars have argued that police agencies might see an increase in the generation of citizen complaints. Using official departmental complaints data collected for all graduates of a recent Philadelphia Police Academy class, the authors examine the effects of role assignment (i.e., community vs. traditional policin
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