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Journal|[J]Journal of Ideas in HealthVolume 4, Issue Special1. 2021. PP 343-347
Understanding SARS-CoV-2 features of infectivity, aggressiveness, and transmissibility: an insect-vector theory for SARS-CoV-2 dissemination
摘要 / Abstract
严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2型( SARS-CoV-2 )是一种以核糖核酸( RNA )为基础的B族β -冠状病毒,具有10 ~ 20倍的传染性和跨种传播能力。SARS-CoV-2的显著感染率是由于其宿主细胞进入机制不同,主要是通过血管紧张素转换酶2 ( ACE2 )受体与早期主要采用内体途径的冠状病毒相比。由于ACE2受体在全身广泛分布,各种传染途径均有可能,突出了除面罩外采用多种形式保护限制人间传染的必要性。SARS-CoV-2表现出其他显著特征,如能够逃避免疫系统反复发生的基因组突变,这使得设计疫苗很难解决所有病毒株,形成巨大的宿主细胞合胞体,导致大规模的组织破坏。如果我们接受来自蝙蝠的SARS-CoV-2初级库,我们应该研究病毒的种间传播途径。本文提出了一个新的理论——通过昆虫载体将病毒从蝙蝠传播到其他物种和人类是可能的,因为昆虫同时具有大量的ACE2受体和对病毒侵染至关重要的解体酶和金属蛋白酶17 ( ADAM-17 )酶。
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a ribonucleic acid–based (RNA-based) lineage B β-coronavirus characterized by 10-20 times higher infectivity and transmissibility even across species than previous coronaviruses. The significant infectivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 is due to its different host cell entry mechanisms that are mainly via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors contrasting earlier coronaviruses that used mainly the endosomal route. Due to the widespread distribution of ACE2 receptors throughout our body, various routes of infectivity are possible, highlighting the necessity of employing multiple forms of protection besides face masks to limit inter-human transmissibility. SARS-CoV-2 exhibits other remarkable features such as the ability to escape the immune system repeated genomic mutations that make it difficult to design a vaccine to address all viral strains and form huge host cell syncytia leading to massive tissue destruction. If we accept SARS-CoV-2 primary reservoir from bats, we should investigate the routes of viral inter-species propagation. In this article, a new theory is proposed- that the dissemination of the virus from the bats to other species and humans could have been possible via an insect vector, as insects possess significant amounts of both ACE2 receptors and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) enzymes that are essential for virus infectivity. .
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