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Journal|[J]Energy Research & Social ScienceVolume 90, 2022.
Selling ‘cool’: The role of marketing in normalizing domestic air-conditioning in Jordan
摘要 / Abstract
预计空调( ACs )的使用量将在全球范围内上升。但是,对媒体和情绪在AC正常化中的作用的认识还有差距。本研究以社会实践理论为指导,运用统计数据、广告内容分析、专家访谈等方法,对约旦公益广告的使用情况进行调查。从营销分析中,确定了三个时期:通过‘区分’的处方播种需要( 1971—1991年),眩光处方‘美好生活’的需要( 1992—2015年),需要与‘常态’的处方扎根( 2016—现在)。最初,AC的内涵是现代性、审美趣味和奢侈性,被富裕的房主拥抱,他们与承包的新培训建筑师有着相似的愿望。随后的处方针对中产阶级部署了更广泛的情绪( 家庭 ,安全 ,幸福 ,恐惧 ,嫉妒 ),到2013年广告曝光量是1991年的两倍,AC摄取增加了13倍。正是在这一时期,围绕AC的新规则、新规范、新意义得以确立,并与安曼新住房类型的扩散和城市致密化共同演化。2016年后,AC广告大幅下滑,表明国内AC已在约旦集体内部化,由"常态"处方支撑,营销中正性情绪使用减少,需求由供给驱动而非必然驱动。该文件有助于人们对理解情绪在再现(非)可持续做法方面的作用产生新的兴趣,并建议限制媒体调动的情绪处方,特别是在交流吸收率低的国家。
Use of air-conditioners (ACs) is predicted to rise globally. However, there remains a gap in understanding the role of media and emotions in normalizing AC. Guided by the social practice theory, this study investigates escalating use of ACs in Jordan, drawing on statistical data, advertisement content analysis, and expert interviews. From the marketing analysis, three periods were identified: seeding the need through prescriptions of ‘distinction’ (1971–1991), glamorizing the need prescribing ‘the good life’ (1992–2015), and need taking root with prescriptions of ‘normality’ (2016-present). Initially, AC was connoted with modernity, aesthetic taste, and luxury, embraced by affluent homeowners who shared similar aspirations with contracted newly trained architects. Prescriptions that followed deployed a wider range of emotions (family, safety, happiness, fear, envy) targeting the middle-class, with twice the ad exposure and 13-fold increase in AC uptake by 2013 compared to 1991. It is during this period that new rules, norms, and meanings around AC arguably took hold, co-evolving with the diffusion of new housing typologies and urban densification in Amman. Post 2016, drastic drop in AC advertising suggests that domestic AC has become collectively internalized in Jordan, supported by prescriptions of ‘normality’, with reduced use of positive emotions in marketing, and the demand driven by supply rather than necessity. The paper contributes to the emerging interest in understanding the role of emotions in reproducing (un)sustainable practices and recommends limiting emotional prescriptions mobilized by media, especially in countries with low AC uptake.
关键词 / Keywords
空调器; 国内降温需求; 营销; 约旦; 实践理论; 情感
核心评价 / Indexed by
研究要点 / Highlights
• Using various emotional prescriptions in marketing helped normalize AC in Jordan;
• Limiting marketing's use of emotions in countries with low AC uptake is recommended.;
• Domestic cooling demand is highly likely to rise as AC penetrates existing housing.;
• Policies urged to learn from consumer groups who resist(ed) marketed prescriptions.
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